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A plausible explanation for male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation

Overview of attention for article published in Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, November 2012
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29 Mendeley
Title
A plausible explanation for male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation
Published in
Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, November 2012
DOI 10.2147/ceg.s36569
Pubmed ID
Authors

Mohammad Khan

Abstract

The phenomenon of consistent male dominance in typhoid ileal perforation (TIP) is not well understood. It cannot be explained on the basis of microbial virulence, Peyer's patch anatomy, ileal wall thickness, gastric acidity, host genetic factors, or sex-linked bias in hospital attendance. The cytokine response to an intestinal infection in males is predominantly proinflammatory as compared with that in females, presumably due to differences in the sex hormonal milieu. Sex hormone receptors have been detected on lymphocytes and macrophages, including on Peyer's patches, inflammation of which (probably similar to the Shwartzman reaction/Koch phenomenon) is the forerunner of TIP, and is not excluded from the regulatory effects of sex hormones. Hormonal control of host-pathogen interaction may override genetic control. Environmental exposure to Salmonella typhi may be more frequent in males, presumably due to sex-linked differences in hygiene practices and dining-out behavior. A plausible explanation of male dominance in TIP could include sex-linked differences in the degree of natural exposure of Peyer's patches to S. typhi. An alternative explanation may include sexual dimorphism in host inflammatory response patterns in Peyer's patches that have been induced by S. typhi. Both hypotheses are testable.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 29 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 3%
India 1 3%
Unknown 27 93%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 7 24%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 10%
Professor > Associate Professor 3 10%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 10%
Student > Postgraduate 2 7%
Other 5 17%
Unknown 6 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 10 34%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 10%
Social Sciences 3 10%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 7%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 1 3%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 8 28%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 13 November 2012.
All research outputs
#3,653,995
of 4,510,149 outputs
Outputs from Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
#54
of 82 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#65,169
of 80,148 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
#2
of 2 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 4,510,149 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 3rd percentile – i.e., 3% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 82 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.2. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 80,148 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 2 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.