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Interleukin-16-producing NK cells and T-cells in the blood of tobacco smokers with and without COPD

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, September 2016
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Title
Interleukin-16-producing NK cells and T-cells in the blood of tobacco smokers with and without COPD
Published in
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, September 2016
DOI 10.2147/copd.s103758
Pubmed ID
Authors

Anders Andersson, Carina Malmhäll, Birgitta Houltz, Sara Tengvall, Margareta Sjöstrand, Ingemar Qvarfordt, Anders Lindén, Apostolos Bossios

Abstract

Long-term exposure to tobacco smoke causes local inflammation in the airways that involves not only innate immune cells, including NK cells, but also adaptive immune cells such as cytotoxic (CD8(+)) and helper (CD4(+)) T-cells. We have previously demonstrated that long-term tobacco smoking increases extracellular concentration of the CD4(+)-recruiting cytokine interleukin (IL)-16 locally in the airways. Here, we hypothesized that tobacco smoking alters IL-16 biology at the systemic level and that this effect involves oxygen free radicals (OFR). We quantified extracellular IL-16 protein (ELISA) and intracellular IL-16 in NK cells, T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes (flow cytometry) in blood samples from long-term tobacco smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in never-smokers. NK cells from healthy blood donors were stimulated with water-soluble tobacco smoke components (cigarette smoke extract) with or without an OFR scavenger (glutathione) in vitro and followed by quantification of IL-16 protein. The extracellular concentrations of IL-16 protein in blood did not display any substantial differences between groups. Notably, intracellular IL-16 protein was detected in all types of blood leukocytes. All long-term smokers displayed a decrease in this IL-16 among NK cells, irrespective of COPD status. Further, both NK and CD4(+) T-cell concentrations displayed a negative correlation with pack-years. Moreover, cigarette smoke extract caused release of IL-16 protein from NK cells in vitro, and this was not affected by glutathione, in contrast to the decrease in intracellular IL-16, which was prevented by this drug. Long-term exposure to tobacco smoke does not markedly alter extracellular concentrations of IL-16 protein in blood. However, it does decrease the intracellular IL-16 concentrations in blood NK cells, the latter effect involving OFR. Thus, long-term tobacco smoking exerts an impact at the systemic level that involves NK cells; innate immune cells that are critical for host defense against viruses and tumors - conditions that are overrepresented among smokers.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 21 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 21 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 4 19%
Student > Bachelor 2 10%
Student > Master 2 10%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 10%
Lecturer > Senior Lecturer 1 5%
Other 3 14%
Unknown 7 33%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 19%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 14%
Environmental Science 2 10%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 10%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 5%
Other 3 14%
Unknown 6 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 September 2016.
All research outputs
#6,366,932
of 8,389,481 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
#832
of 1,077 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#165,554
of 233,813 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
#83
of 100 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,389,481 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,077 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.3. This one is in the 7th percentile – i.e., 7% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 233,813 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 16th percentile – i.e., 16% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 100 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.