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The mechanisms of graphene-based materials-induced programmed cell death: a review of apoptosis, autophagy, and programmed necrosis

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, September 2017
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1 tweeter
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1 Redditor

Citations

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Readers on

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73 Mendeley
Title
The mechanisms of graphene-based materials-induced programmed cell death: a review of apoptosis, autophagy, and programmed necrosis
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, September 2017
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s140526
Pubmed ID
Authors

Lingling Ou, Shaoqiang Lin, Bin Song, Jia Liu, Renfa Lai, Longquan Shao

Abstract

Graphene-based materials (GBMs) are widely used in many fields, including biomedicine. To date, much attention had been paid to the potential unexpected toxic effects of GBMs. Here, we review the recent literature regarding the impact of GBMs on programmed cell death (PCD). Apoptosis, autophagy, and programmed necrosis are three major PCDs. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the mitochondrial pathways and MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38)- and TGF-β-related signaling pathways are implicated in GBMs-induced apoptosis. Autophagy, unlike apoptosis and necroptosis which are already clear cell death types, plays a vital pro-survival role in cell homeostasis, so its role in cell death should be carefully considered. However, GBMs always induce unrestrained autophagy accelerating cell death. GBMs trigger autophagy through inducing autophagosome accumulation and lysosome impairment. Mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, TLRs signaling pathways, and p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways participate in GBMs-induced autophagy. Programmed necrosis can be activated by RIP kinases, PARP, and TLR-4 signaling in macrophages after GBMs exposure. Though apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis are distinguished by some characteristics, their numerous signaling pathways comprise an interconnected network and correlate with each other, such as the TLRs, p53 signaling pathways, and the Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 interaction. A better understanding of the mechanisms of PCD induced by GBMs may allow for a thorough study of the toxicology of GBMs and a more precise determination of the consequences of human exposure to GBMs. These determinations will also benefit safety assessments of the biomedical and therapeutic applications of GBMs.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 73 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 73 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 10 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 12%
Researcher 7 10%
Student > Bachelor 6 8%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 7%
Other 10 14%
Unknown 26 36%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 10 14%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 10 14%
Medicine and Dentistry 6 8%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 5 7%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 3%
Other 11 15%
Unknown 29 40%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 December 2017.
All research outputs
#15,640,847
of 19,504,205 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#2,557
of 3,403 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#214,798
of 285,978 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#45
of 61 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,504,205 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,403 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.1. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 285,978 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 61 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 8th percentile – i.e., 8% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.