↓ Skip to main content

Dove Medical Press

Article Metrics

Neuroinflammatory responses to traumatic brain injury: etiology, clinical consequences, and therapeutic opportunities

Overview of attention for article published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, January 2015
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (73rd percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (55th percentile)

Mentioned by

twitter
2 tweeters
patent
1 patent
facebook
1 Facebook page

Citations

dimensions_citation
361 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
326 Mendeley
Title
Neuroinflammatory responses to traumatic brain injury: etiology, clinical consequences, and therapeutic opportunities
Published in
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, January 2015
DOI 10.2147/ndt.s65815
Pubmed ID
Authors

Cesario Borlongan, Sandra Acosta, Ike de la Pena, Naoki Tajiri, Yuji Kaneko, Diego Lozano, Gabriel Gonzales-Portillo

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem accounting for 1.4 million emergency room visits by US citizens each year. Although TBI has been traditionally considered an acute injury, chronic symptoms reminiscent of neurodegenerative disorders have now been recognized. These progressive neurodegenerative-like symptoms manifest as impaired motor and cognitive skills, as well as stress, anxiety, and mood affective behavioral alterations. TBI, characterized by external bumps or blows to the head exceeding the brain's protective capacity, causes physical damage to the central nervous system with accompanying neurological dysfunctions. The primary impact results in direct neural cell loss predominantly exhibiting necrotic death, which is then followed by a wave of secondary injury cascades including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption, and inflammation. All these processes exacerbate the damage, worsen the clinical outcomes, and persist as an evolving pathological hallmark of what we now describe as chronic TBI. Neuroinflammation in the acute stage of TBI mobilizes immune cells, astrocytes, cytokines, and chemokines toward the site of injury to mount an antiinflammatory response against brain damage; however, in the chronic stage, excess activation of these inflammatory elements contributes to an "inflamed" brain microenvironment that principally contributes to secondary cell death in TBI. Modulating these inflammatory cells by changing their phenotype from proinflammatory to antiinflammatory would likely promote therapeutic effects on TBI. Because neuroinflammation occurs at acute and chronic stages after the primary insult in TBI, a treatment targeting neuroinflammation may have a wider therapeutic window for TBI. To this end, a better understanding of TBI etiology and clinical manifestations, especially the pathological presentation of chronic TBI with neuroinflammation as a major component, will advance our knowledge on inflammation-based disease mechanisms and treatments.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 326 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 3 <1%
Denmark 1 <1%
Unknown 322 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 62 19%
Student > Ph. D. Student 58 18%
Student > Master 47 14%
Researcher 35 11%
Student > Doctoral Student 17 5%
Other 57 17%
Unknown 50 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 68 21%
Medicine and Dentistry 62 19%
Psychology 27 8%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 25 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 24 7%
Other 48 15%
Unknown 72 22%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 4. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 20 November 2018.
All research outputs
#6,413,742
of 22,787,797 outputs
Outputs from Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
#845
of 2,984 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#87,989
of 352,983 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
#19
of 45 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,787,797 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 70th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,984 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 8.6. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 70% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 352,983 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 73% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 45 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 55% of its contemporaries.