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Ultrasound contrast agent loaded with nitric oxide as a theranostic microdevice

Overview of attention for article published in Drug Design, Development and Therapy, April 2015
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26 Mendeley
Title
Ultrasound contrast agent loaded with nitric oxide as a theranostic microdevice
Published in
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, April 2015
DOI 10.2147/dddt.s77790
Pubmed ID
Authors

Dmitry Grishenkov, Adrian Gonon, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon Lundberg, Johan Harmark, Barbara Cerroni, Gaio Paradossi, Birgitta Janerot-Sjoberg

Abstract

The current study describes novel multifunctional polymer-shelled microbubbles (MBs) loaded with nitric oxide (NO) for integrated therapeutic and diagnostic applications (ie, theranostics) of myocardial ischemia. We used gas-filled MBs with an average diameter of 4 μm stabilized by a biocompatible shell of polyvinyl alcohol. In vitro acoustic tests showed sufficient enhancement of the backscattered power (20 dB) acquired from the MBs' suspension. The values of attenuation coefficient (0.8 dB/cm MHz) and phase velocities (1,517 m/s) were comparable with those reported for the soft tissue. Moreover, polymer MBs demonstrate increased stability compared with clinically approved contrast agents with a fracture threshold of about 900 kPa. In vitro chemiluminescence measurements demonstrated that dry powder of NO-loaded MBs releases its gas content in about 2 hours following an exponential decay profile with an exponential time constant equal to 36 minutes. The application of high-power ultrasound pulse (mechanical index =1.2) on the MBs resuspended in saline decreases the exponential time constant from 55 to 4 minutes in air-saturated solution and from 17 to 10 minutes in degassed solution. Thus, ultrasound-triggered release of NO is achieved. Cytotoxicity tests indicate that phagocytosis of the MBs by macrophages starts within 6-8 hours. This is a suitable time for initial diagnostics, treatment, and monitoring of the therapeutic effect using a single injection of the proposed multifunctional MBs.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 26 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 26 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 6 23%
Student > Bachelor 4 15%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 15%
Professor 4 15%
Student > Master 3 12%
Other 2 8%
Unknown 3 12%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Engineering 5 19%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 3 12%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 12%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 12%
Materials Science 3 12%
Other 6 23%
Unknown 3 12%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 April 2015.
All research outputs
#4,194,377
of 5,042,083 outputs
Outputs from Drug Design, Development and Therapy
#514
of 746 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#132,700
of 159,697 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Drug Design, Development and Therapy
#33
of 54 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 5,042,083 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 746 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.2. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 159,697 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 54 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.