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Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared with PEEK or titanium

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, September 2012
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About this Attention Score

  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (71st percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (85th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 policy source
1 Google+ user


110 Dimensions

Readers on

112 Mendeley
Decreased bacteria activity on Si3N4 surfaces compared with PEEK or titanium
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, September 2012
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s35190
Pubmed ID

Sonny Bal, Deborah Gorth, Sabrina Puckett, Thomas J Webster, Rahaman, Batur Ercan


A significant need exists for orthopedic implants that can intrinsically resist bacterial colonization. In this study, three biomaterials that are used in spinal implants--titanium (Ti), polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), and silicon nitride (Si₃N₄)--were tested to understand their respective susceptibility to bacterial infection with Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphlococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus. Specifically, the surface chemistry, wettability, and nanostructured topography of respective biomaterials, and the effects on bacterial biofilm formation, colonization, and growth were investigated. Ti and PEEK were received with as-machined surfaces; both materials are hydrophobic, with net negative surface charges. Two surface finishes of Si₃N₄ were examined: as-fired and polished. In contrast to Ti and PEEK, the surface of Si₃N₄ is hydrophilic, with a net positive charge. A decreased biofilm formation was found, as well as fewer live bacteria on both the as-fired and polished Si₃N₄. These differences may reflect differential surface chemistry and surface nanostructure properties between the biomaterials tested. Because protein adsorption on material surfaces affects bacterial adhesion, the adsorption of fibronectin, vitronectin, and laminin on Ti, PEEK, and Si₃N₄ were also examined. Significantly greater amounts of these proteins adhered to Si₃N₄ than to Ti or PEEK. The findings of this study suggest that surface properties of biomaterials lead to differential adsorption of physiologic proteins, and that this phenomenon could explain the observed in-vitro differences in bacterial affinity for the respective biomaterials. Intrinsic biomaterial properties as they relate to resistance to bacterial colonization may reflect a novel strategy toward designing future orthopedic implants.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 112 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 2 2%
France 1 <1%
Germany 1 <1%
Denmark 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Unknown 106 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 24 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 21 19%
Student > Master 11 10%
Student > Bachelor 9 8%
Other 9 8%
Other 18 16%
Unknown 20 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 22 20%
Materials Science 18 16%
Engineering 14 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 10%
Chemistry 4 4%
Other 13 12%
Unknown 30 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 4. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 August 2020.
All research outputs
of 18,731,132 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
of 3,327 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 244,340 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
of 149 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 18,731,132 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 70th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,327 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.0. This one has done well, scoring higher than 82% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 244,340 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 71% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 149 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 85% of its contemporaries.