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The mechanism of botulinum A on Raynaud syndrome

Overview of attention for article published in Drug Design, Development and Therapy, June 2018
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Title
The mechanism of botulinum A on Raynaud syndrome
Published in
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, June 2018
DOI 10.2147/dddt.s161113
Pubmed ID
Authors

Yanwen Zhou, Ying Liu, Yunhua Hao, Ya Feng, Lizhen Pan, Wuchao Liu, Bing Li, Libin Xiao, Lingjing Jin, Zhiyu Nie

Abstract

Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is emerging as a treatment modality for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). However, the mechanism of the role of BoNT/A in antagonizing the constriction of arteriola in RP remains unclear. We tested the constriction of arteriole diameter and the distribution of adrenergic receptors on the rat cremaster modle. Moreover, we measured the secretion of norepinephrine (NE), protein level changes and related receptors on cultured rat superior cervical ganglia neurons(SCGNs), a model of sympathetic neuron. Based on our results, the inhibition of arteriole vasoconstriction was increased with increasing doses of BoNT/A. BoNT/A, prazosin, and BQ123 treatment can result in significant inhibition of arteriole vasoconstriction with the same electrical stimulation. The inhibition effect of prazosin was equivalent to BoNT/A, while BQ123 has a synergistic effect with BoNT/A. After treating SCGNs using BoNT/A for 30 min, the decrease in fluorescence intensity of FM1-43 slowed down which was correlated with the doses of BoNT/A. Furthermore, release of NE in the supernatant was significantly decreased as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 24 h after a high dose of BoNT/A (25 µ/mL). Cleaved-SNAP-25 was detected by Western blotting 24 h following BoNT/A (50 µ/mL) treatment. Moreover, receptor SV2C, GM1, and FGFR3 were detected on sympathetic neurons, similarly to cholinergic neurons. Our study showed that BoNT/A could significantly inhibit electrical stimulation-induced arteriole vasoconstriction through the sympathetic pathway. The mechanism was similar to the cholinergic one, in which the vesicle release of sympathetic neurons could be inhibited by cleavage of SNAP-25. The end result was blocked vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane after BoNT/A treatment, inhibiting the release of the NE.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 15 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 15 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 3 20%
Other 2 13%
Professor > Associate Professor 2 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 13%
Lecturer > Senior Lecturer 1 7%
Other 1 7%
Unknown 4 27%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 6 40%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 13%
Neuroscience 2 13%
Business, Management and Accounting 1 7%
Unknown 4 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 November 2018.
All research outputs
#10,968,325
of 13,813,295 outputs
Outputs from Drug Design, Development and Therapy
#830
of 1,453 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#202,546
of 272,245 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Drug Design, Development and Therapy
#31
of 38 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,813,295 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,453 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 272,245 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 14th percentile – i.e., 14% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 38 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 7th percentile – i.e., 7% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.