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Cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the involvement of cellular uptake and induction of pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, February 2016
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Title
Cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the involvement of cellular uptake and induction of pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, February 2016
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s93591
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ming Yan, Yun Zhang, Haiyan Qin, Kezhou Liu, Miao Guo, Yakun Ge, Mingen Xu, Yonghong Sun, Xiaoxiang Zheng

Abstract

Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) have been proposed to induce oxidative stress, which plays a crucial role in CdTe QDs-mediated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the direct interactions of CdTe QDs with HUVECs and their potential impairment of other organelles like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in HUVECs are poorly understood. In this study, we reported that the negatively charged CdTe QDs (-21.63±0.91 mV), with good dispersity and fluorescence stability, were rapidly internalized via endocytosis by HUVECs, as the notable internalization could be inhibited up to 95.52% by energy depletion (NaN3/deoxyglucose or low temperature). The endocytosis inhibitors (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, genistein, sucrose, chlorpromazine, and colchicine) dramatically decreased the uptake of CdTe QDs by HUVECs, suggesting that both caveolae/raft- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis were involved in the endothelial uptake of CdTe QDs. Using immunocytochemistry, a striking overlap of the internalized CdTe QDs and ER marker was observed, which indicates that QDs may be transported to ER. The CdTe QDs also caused remarkable ER stress responses in HUVECs, confirmed by significant dilatation of ER cisternae, upregulation of ER stress markers GRP78/GRP94, and activation of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase-eIF2α-activating transcription factor 4 pathway (including phosphorylation of both protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase and eIF2α and elevated level of activating transcription factor 4). CdTe QDs further promoted an increased C/EBP homologous protein expression, phosphorylation of c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase, and cleavage of ER-resident caspase-4, while the specific inhibitor (SP600125, Z-LEVD-fmk, or salubrinal) significantly attenuated QDs-triggered apoptosis, indicating that all three ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathways were activated and the direct participation of ER in the CdTe QDs-caused apoptotic cell death in HUVECs. Our findings provide important new insights into QDs toxicity and reveal potential cardiovascular risks for the future applications of QDs.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 25 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 25 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 32%
Student > Master 5 20%
Researcher 3 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 8%
Student > Bachelor 2 8%
Other 2 8%
Unknown 3 12%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 4 16%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 16%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 12%
Chemistry 2 8%
Engineering 2 8%
Other 4 16%
Unknown 6 24%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 03 February 2016.
All research outputs
#3,537,774
of 7,089,314 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#949
of 1,660 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#167,268
of 319,703 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#62
of 80 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,089,314 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 28th percentile – i.e., 28% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,660 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.1. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 319,703 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 36th percentile – i.e., 36% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 80 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.