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Fabrication of novel vesicles of triptolide for antirheumatoid activity with reduced toxicity in vitro and in vivo

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, June 2016
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Title
Fabrication of novel vesicles of triptolide for antirheumatoid activity with reduced toxicity in vitro and in vivo
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, June 2016
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s104593
Pubmed ID
Authors

Qianqian Liang, Li Zhang, Tengteng Wang, Qiang Li, Jing Huang, Hao Xu, Jinlong Li, Yongjun Wang

Abstract

Triptolide (TP) displays a strong immunosuppression function in immune-mediated diseases, especially in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, in addition to its medical and health-related functions, TP also exhibits diverse pharmacological side effects, for instance, liver and kidney toxicity and myelosuppression. In order to reduce the side effects, a nano drug carrier system (γ-PGA-l-PAE-TP [PPT]), in which TP was loaded by a poly-γ-glutamic acid-grafted l-phenylalanine ethylester copolymer, was developed. PPT was characterized by photon scattering correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, which demonstrated that the average diameter of the drug carrier system is 98±15 nm, the polydispersity index is 0.18, the zeta potential is -35 mV, and the TP encapsulation efficiency is 48.6% with a controlled release manner. The methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry revealed that PPT could decrease toxicity and apoptosis induced by free TP on RAW264.7 cells, respectively. The detection of reactive oxygen species showed that PPT could decrease the cellular reactive oxygen species induced by TP. Compared with the free TP-treated group, PPT improved the survival rate of the mice (P<0.01) and had no side effects or toxic effects on the thymus index (P>0.05) and spleen index (P>0.05). The blood biochemical indexes revealed that PPT did not cause much damage to the kidney (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine), liver (serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), or blood cells (P>0.05). Meanwhile, hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling staining indicated that PPT reduced the damage of free TP on the liver, kidney, and spleen. Our results demonstrated that PPT reduced free TP toxicity in vitro and in vivo and that it is a promising fundamental drug delivery system for rheumatoid arthritis treatment.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 16 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 16 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 3 19%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 19%
Student > Master 3 19%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 19%
Other 1 6%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 3 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 6 38%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 13%
Business, Management and Accounting 1 6%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 6%
Unknown 6 38%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 09 June 2016.
All research outputs
#5,973,904
of 7,876,706 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#1,346
of 1,760 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#187,892
of 268,679 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#110
of 119 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,876,706 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,760 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.6. This one is in the 14th percentile – i.e., 14% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 268,679 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 16th percentile – i.e., 16% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 119 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 2nd percentile – i.e., 2% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.