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Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study

Overview of attention for article published in Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety, July 2016
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Title
Extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a simulated-patient study
Published in
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety, July 2016
DOI 10.2147/dhps.s106948
Pubmed ID
Authors

Daniel asfaw erku, Abebe basazn Mekurie, Abdrrahman Surrur, Begashaw melaku Gebresillassie

Abstract

This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data. Requests of six tracer prescription-only medicines (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid capsule, amitriptyline, captopril, glibenclamide [also known as glyburide], omeprazole capsule, and sildenafil citrate) and upper respiratory tract infection were selected as the simulated clinical scenario. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid capsule was dispensed when requested in 87.93% of the dispensaries. All of the CDROs dispensed omeprazole upon request. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) was in stock in 96.55% of the CDROs, all of which issued the requested number of tablets without asking why or for whom the drug was needed. Amitriptyline, captopril, and glibenclamide (glyburide) were dispensed in 84.48%, 89.65%, and 87.93% of CDROs upon the provision of an empty container. Antibiotics were obtained from 75.86% of CDROs for presentation of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the dispensed antibiotics, the most common was amoxicillin (93.18%), followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid capsule (72.72%), and azithromycin (50%). Only 4.5% of the dispensaries asked about drug allergies, and 15.9% of the CDROs informed the simulated patient about the possible side effects of the drugs. This study revealed a very high rate of dispensing of prescription-only medicines without a prescription. Antimicrobials and drugs for chronic diseases were obtained with ease from almost all of the randomly sampled CDROs. Putting good dispensing practice into effect and adhering to the existing national laws and regulations regarding the same are necessary. It is also necessary to adopt a strong and explicit line of action, especially toward the irrational use of antibiotics.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 33 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 33 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 11 33%
Unspecified 6 18%
Student > Master 5 15%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 12%
Lecturer 2 6%
Other 5 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 17 52%
Unspecified 8 24%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 15%
Psychology 1 3%
Social Sciences 1 3%
Other 1 3%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 July 2016.
All research outputs
#6,133,255
of 8,076,187 outputs
Outputs from Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
#72
of 87 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#182,915
of 259,359 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
#2
of 3 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,076,187 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 87 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.9. This one is in the 8th percentile – i.e., 8% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 3 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.