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Endothelial glycocalyx conditions influence nanoparticle uptake for passive targeting

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, July 2016
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1 tweeter

Citations

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33 Mendeley
Title
Endothelial glycocalyx conditions influence nanoparticle uptake for passive targeting
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, July 2016
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s106299
Pubmed ID
Authors

Eno Ebong, Rajiv Kumar, Srinivas Sridhar, Thomas Webster, Ming Cheng

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are facilitated by endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and coincide with EC glycocalyx coat shedding. These diseases may be prevented by delivering medications to affected vascular regions using circulating nanoparticle (NP) drug carriers. The objective of the present study was to observe how the delivery of 10 nm polyethylene glycol-coated gold NPs (PEG-AuNP) to ECs is impacted by glycocalyx structure on the EC surface. Rat fat pad endothelial cells were chosen for their robust glycocalyx, verified by fluorescent immunolabeling of adsorbed albumin and integrated heparan sulfate (HS) chains. Confocal fluorescent imaging revealed a ~3 µm thick glycocalyx layer, covering 75% of the ECs and containing abundant HS. This healthy glycocalyx hindered the uptake of PEG-AuNP as expected because glycocalyx pores are typically 7 nm wide. Additional glycocalyx models tested included: a collapsed glycocalyx obtained by culturing cells in reduced protein media, a degraded glycocalyx obtained by applying heparinase III enzyme to specifically cleave HS, and a recovered glycocalyx obtained by supplementing exogenous HS into the media after enzyme degradation. The collapsed glycocalyx waŝ2 µm thick with unchanged EC coverage and sustained HS content. The degraded glycocalyx showed similar changes in EC thickness and coverage but its HS thickness was reduced to 0.7 µm and spanned only 10% of the original EC surface. Both dysfunctional models retained six- to sevenfold more PEG-AuNP compared to the healthy glycocalyx. The collapsed glycocalyx permitted NPs to cross the glycocalyx into intracellular spaces, whereas the degraded glycocalyx trapped the PEG-AuNP within the glycocalyx. The repaired glycocalyx model partially restored HS thickness to 1.2 µm and 44% coverage of the ECs, but it was able to reverse the NP uptake back to baseline levels. In summary, this study showed that the glycocalyx structure is critical for NP uptake by ECs and may serve as a passive pathway for delivering NPs to dysfunctional ECs.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 33 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Czechia 1 3%
Unknown 32 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 9 27%
Researcher 7 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 18%
Lecturer 2 6%
Student > Bachelor 2 6%
Other 2 6%
Unknown 5 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 7 21%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 6 18%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 15%
Engineering 4 12%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 6%
Other 3 9%
Unknown 6 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 22 July 2016.
All research outputs
#6,145,061
of 8,091,619 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#1,362
of 1,790 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#182,135
of 257,247 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#116
of 122 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,091,619 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,790 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.6. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 257,247 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 122 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 2nd percentile – i.e., 2% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.