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Green synthesis and evaluation of silver nanoparticles as adjuvant in rabies veterinary vaccine

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, July 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (73rd percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (90th percentile)

Mentioned by

policy
1 policy source
twitter
4 tweeters

Citations

dimensions_citation
37 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
58 Mendeley
Title
Green synthesis and evaluation of silver nanoparticles as adjuvant in rabies veterinary vaccine
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, July 2016
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s109098
Pubmed ID
Authors

Reza Cohan, Alireza Shoari, Fahimeh Baghbani-Arani, Attaollah Sadat Shandiz, Mohammad Sadeq Khosravy, Alireza Janani, Razieh Bigdeli, Rouzbeh Bashar, Vahid Asgary

Abstract

Green synthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts plays a significant role in different applications. Recently, several studies were conducted on the use of nanoparticles as adjuvant. The main aim of this study was to evaluate green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as adjuvant in rabies veterinary vaccine and compare the results with the existing commercially available alum adjuvant. In the current study, AgNPs were prepared by the reduction of aqueous silver nitrate by leaf extract of Eucalyptus procera. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Then, different amounts of AgNPs (200 µg, 400 µg, 600 µg, and 800 µg) were added to 1 mL of inactivated rabies virus. The loaded vaccines (0.5 mL) were injected intraperitoneally into six Naval Medical Research Institute mice in each group on days 1 and 7. On the 15th day, the mice were intracerebrally challenged with 0.03 mL of challenge rabies virus (challenge virus strain-11, 20 lethal dose [20 LD50]), and after the latency period of rabies disease in mice (5 days), the mice were monitored for 21 days. Neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus were also investigated using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test method. The National Institutes of Health test was performed to determine the potency of optimum concentration of AgNPs as adjuvant. In vitro toxicity of AgNPs was assessed in L929 cell line using MTT assay. In addition, in vivo toxicity of AgNPs and AgNPs-loaded vaccine was investigated according to the European Pharmacopeia 8.0. AgNPs were successfully synthesized, and the identity was confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The prepared AgNPs were spherical in shape, with an average size of 60 nm and a negative zeta potential of -14 mV as determined by dynamic light scattering technique. The highest percentage of viability was observed at 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of AgNPs-loaded vaccine concentrations after injecting into the mice. The calculated potencies for alum-containing vaccine and AgNPs-loaded vaccine (dose 15 mg/kg) were 1.897 and 1.303, respectively. MTT assay demonstrated that alum at the concentration of 10 mg/mL was toxic, but AgNPs were not toxic. The in vivo toxicity also elucidated the safety of AgNPs and AgNPs-loaded vaccine in mice and dogs, respectively. In the current study, for the first time, the adjuvanticity effect of green synthesized AgNPs on veterinary rabies vaccine potency with no in vivo toxicity was elucidated according to the European Pharmacopeia 8.0.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 58 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 58 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 12 21%
Student > Master 10 17%
Researcher 7 12%
Professor > Associate Professor 6 10%
Student > Bachelor 5 9%
Other 9 16%
Unknown 9 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 11 19%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 10%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 5 9%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 9%
Other 15 26%
Unknown 11 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 6. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 24 February 2019.
All research outputs
#4,193,808
of 17,043,172 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#353
of 3,119 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#70,019
of 270,451 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#12
of 122 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 17,043,172 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 75th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,119 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.6. This one has done well, scoring higher than 88% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 270,451 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 73% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 122 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.