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The comparison of protein-entrapped liposomes and lipoparticles: preparation, characterization, and efficacy of cellular uptake

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, October 2011
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Title
The comparison of protein-entrapped liposomes and lipoparticles: preparation, characterization, and efficacy of cellular uptake
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, October 2011
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s25646
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ming-Kung Yeh, Wei-Kuo Chang, Yu-Ju Tai, Chiao-Hsi Chiang, Chieh-shen Hu, Po-da Hong

Abstract

Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA)-loaded polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes and lipoparticles with high protein entrapment were developed. The lipid formula of the liposomes contained PEGylated lipids and unsaturated fatty acids for enhancing membrane fluidity and effective delivery into cells. The preparation techniques, lipid content, and PEG-modified lipoparticle ratios were evaluated. The PEG-modified lipoparticles prepared by ethanol injection extrusion (100 nm pore size) achieve a population of blank liposomes with a mean size of 125 ± 2.3 nm and a zeta potential of -12.4 ± 1.5 mV. The average particle size of the PEG-modified lipoparticles was 133.7 ± 8.6 nm with a zeta potential of +13.3 mV. Lipoparticle conformation was determined using transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The FITC-BSA encapsulation efficiency was dramatically increased from 19.0% for liposomes to 59.7% for lipoparticles. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results confirmed the preparation process, and an 8-hour leaching test did not harm the protein structure. Once prepared, the physical and chemical stability of the PEG-modified lipoparticle formulations was satisfactory over 90 days. In vitro retention tests indicated that the 50% retention time for the protein-containing lipoparticles was 7.9 hours, substantially longer than the liposomes at 3.3 hours. A Caco-2 cell model was used for evaluating the cytotoxicity and cell uptake efficiency of the PEG-modified lipoparticles. At a lipid content below 0.25 mM, neither the liposomes nor the lipoparticles caused significant cellular cytotoxicity (P < 0.01) and FITC-BSA was significantly taken up into cells within 60 minutes (P < 0.01).

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 44 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 44 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 5 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 7%
Researcher 2 5%
Student > Master 1 2%
Professor > Associate Professor 1 2%
Other 1 2%
Unknown 31 70%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 4 9%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 9%
Chemistry 2 5%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 2%
Engineering 1 2%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 32 73%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 October 2011.
All research outputs
#20,187,333
of 22,703,044 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#3,304
of 3,793 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#121,775
of 132,478 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#46
of 51 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,703,044 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,793 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.3. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 132,478 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 51 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.