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Confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate nanoparticles’ human skin penetration in vitro

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, October 2017
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Citations

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35 Mendeley
Title
Confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate nanoparticles’ human skin penetration in vitro
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, October 2017
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s139139
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ying Zou, Anna Celli, Hanjiang Zhu, Akram Elmahdy, Yachao Cao, Xiaoying Hui, Howard Maibach

Abstract

With rapid development of nanotechnology, there is increasing interest in nanoparticle (NP) application and its safety and efficacy on human skin. In this study, we utilized confocal laser scanning microscopy to estimate NP skin penetration. Three different-sized polystyrene NPs marked with red fluorescence were applied to human skin, and Calcium Green 5N was used as a counterstain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol were used as alternative vehicles for NPs. Tape stripping was utilized as a barrier-damaged skin model. Skin biopsies dosed with NPs were incubated at 4°C or 37°C for 24 hours and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. NPs were localized in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles without penetrating the epidermis/dermis. Barrier alteration with tape stripping and change in incubation temperature did not induce deeper penetration. DMSO enhanced NP SC penetration but ethanol did not. Except with DMSO vehicle, these hydrolyzed polystyrene NPs did not penetrate intact or barrier-damaged human "viable" epidermis. For further clinical relevance, in vivo human skin studies and more sensitive analytic chemical methodology are suggested.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 35 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 35 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 31%
Researcher 5 14%
Student > Master 3 9%
Student > Bachelor 3 9%
Student > Postgraduate 2 6%
Other 4 11%
Unknown 7 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 7 20%
Chemistry 5 14%
Materials Science 3 9%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 9%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 6%
Other 4 11%
Unknown 11 31%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 November 2017.
All research outputs
#12,433,865
of 14,056,994 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#2,387
of 2,736 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#270,125
of 318,443 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#55
of 65 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,056,994 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,736 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.0. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 318,443 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 65 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.