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Studies of selective TNF inhibitors in the treatment of brain injury from stroke and trauma: a review of the evidence to date

Overview of attention for article published in Drug Design, Development and Therapy, November 2014
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About this Attention Score

  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (72nd percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (60th percentile)

Mentioned by

twitter
3 tweeters
patent
3 patents

Citations

dimensions_citation
132 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
103 Mendeley
Title
Studies of selective TNF inhibitors in the treatment of brain injury from stroke and trauma: a review of the evidence to date
Published in
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, November 2014
DOI 10.2147/dddt.s67655
Pubmed ID
Authors

Antonino Tuttolomondo, Rosaria Pecoraro, Antonio Pinto

Abstract

The brain is very actively involved in immune-inflammatory processes, and the response to several trigger factors such as trauma, hemorrhage, or ischemia causes the release of active inflammatory substances such as cytokines, which are the basis of second-level damage. During brain ischemia and after brain trauma, the intrinsic inflammatory mechanisms of the brain, as well as those of the blood, are mediated by leukocytes that communicate with each other through cytokines. A neuroinflammatory cascade has been reported to be activated after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and this cascade is due to the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Microglia are the first sources of this inflammatory cascade in the brain setting. Also in an ischemic stroke setting, an important mediator of this inflammatory reaction is tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which seems to be involved in every phase of stroke-related neuronal damage such as inflammatory and prothrombotic events. TNF-α has been shown to have an important role within the central nervous system; its properties include activation of microglia and astrocytes, influence on blood-brain barrier permeability, and influences on glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity. TNF-α increases the amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor density on the cell surface and simultaneously decreases expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor cells, and these effects are related to a direct neurotoxic effect. Several endogenous mechanisms regulate TNF-α activity during inflammatory responses. Endogenous inhibitors of TNF include prostaglandins, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and glucocorticoids. Etanercept, a biologic TNF antagonist, has a reported effect of decreasing microglia activation in experimental models, and it has been used therapeutically in animal models of ischemic and traumatic neuronal damage. In some studies using animal models, researchers have reported a limitation of TBI-induced cerebral ischemia due to etanercept action, amelioration of brain contusion signs, as well as motor and cognitive dysfunction. On this basis, it appears that etanercept may improve outcomes of TBI by penetrating into the cerebrospinal fluid in rats, although further studies in humans are needed to confirm these interesting and suggestive experimental findings.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 103 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Spain 1 <1%
United States 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Unknown 100 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 20 19%
Researcher 18 17%
Student > Bachelor 12 12%
Student > Master 11 11%
Other 8 8%
Other 24 23%
Unknown 10 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 26 25%
Neuroscience 23 22%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 14 14%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 11 11%
Nursing and Health Professions 4 4%
Other 10 10%
Unknown 15 15%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 4. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 August 2020.
All research outputs
#5,498,585
of 18,639,770 outputs
Outputs from Drug Design, Development and Therapy
#321
of 1,804 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#86,025
of 323,958 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Drug Design, Development and Therapy
#17
of 41 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 18,639,770 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 70th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,804 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.1. This one has done well, scoring higher than 81% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 323,958 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 72% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 41 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 60% of its contemporaries.