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Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man

Overview of attention for article published in Drug Design, Development and Therapy, April 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#18 of 1,860)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
6 news outlets
twitter
26 tweeters
patent
1 patent
facebook
3 Facebook pages
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page
googleplus
1 Google+ user
reddit
4 Redditors

Citations

dimensions_citation
69 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
127 Mendeley
Title
Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man
Published in
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, April 2015
DOI 10.2147/dddt.s79658
Pubmed ID
Authors

Winai Wananukul, Satariya Trakulsrichai, Korbtham Sathirakul, Saranya Auparakkitanon, Jatupon Krongvorakul, Jetjamnong Sueajai, Nantida Noumjad, Chonlaphat Sukasem

Abstract

Kratom, known botanically as Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.), is an indigenous tree in Southeast Asia. Kratom is currently easily available worldwide via special shops and the Internet to use as a drug of abuse, opioid alternative, or pain killer. So far, the pharmacokinetics of this plant has been studied only in animals, and there is no such study in humans. The major abundant active alkaloid in Kratom, mitragynine, is one of the promising new chemical substances to be developed as a new drug. The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of mitragynine and assess the linearity in pharmacokinetics in chronic users. Since Kratom is illegal in Thailand, studies in healthy subjects would be unethical. We therefore conducted a prospective study by enrolling ten chronic, regular, healthy users. We adjusted the steady state in each subject by giving a known amount of Kratom tea for 7 days before commencement of the experiment. We admitted and gave different oral doses to subjects to confirm linearity in pharmacokinetics. The mitragynine blood concentrations at 17 times points and the urine concentrations during the 24-hour period were collected and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Ten male subjects completed the study without adverse reactions. The median duration of abuse was 1.75 years. We analyzed one subject separately due to the abnormal behavior of blood concentration. From data of nine subjects, the pharmacokinetic parameters established were time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (0.83±0.35 hour), terminal half-life (23.24±16.07 hours), and the apparent volume of distribution (38.04±24.32 L/kg). The urine excretion of unchanged form was 0.14%. The pharmacokinetics were observed to be oral two-compartment model. This was the first pharmacokinetic study in humans, which demonstrated linearity and was consistent with the oral two-compartment model with a terminal half-life of about 1 day. The pharmacokinetic linearity and parameters reported are necessary pharmacological information of Kratom, and there is a possibility for it to be developed medically as a pain killer or better opioid substitute in the future.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 26 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 127 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 3 2%
Unknown 124 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 18 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 18 14%
Student > Bachelor 16 13%
Researcher 15 12%
Other 11 9%
Other 22 17%
Unknown 27 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 16 13%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 15 12%
Chemistry 11 9%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 9%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 10 8%
Other 28 22%
Unknown 36 28%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 84. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 22 March 2021.
All research outputs
#343,928
of 19,537,318 outputs
Outputs from Drug Design, Development and Therapy
#18
of 1,860 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#4,828
of 246,880 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Drug Design, Development and Therapy
#2
of 125 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,537,318 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,860 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 246,880 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 125 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.