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Optimization, ex vivo permeation, and stability study of lipid nanocarrier loaded gelatin capsules for treatment of intermittent claudication

Overview of attention for article published in International Journal of Nanomedicine, July 2015
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Title
Optimization, ex vivo permeation, and stability study of lipid nanocarrier loaded gelatin capsules for treatment of intermittent claudication
Published in
International Journal of Nanomedicine, July 2015
DOI 10.2147/ijn.s83123
Pubmed ID
Authors

Marwa Ahmed Sallam, María Teresa Marín Boscá

Abstract

In this study, an optimized nanodispersible oral dosage form (containing a lactate ester) was developed for cilostazol (CZL). CZL is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor used for intermittent claudication. We aimed to improve the dissolution rate and absorption of CZL giving it a better chance of oral bioavailability, and to evaluate its stability on storage. Suitable compositions of nanoemulsion preconcentrate formulations were screened via solubility and compatibility tests. Response surface methodology and a desirability approach were applied to optimize preconcentrates containing minimum amount of surfactant mixture, maximum amount of lipid, and possessing the smallest globule size, with the highest emulsification and dissolution rates and minimum risk of drug precipitation. As part of the optimization process, the main effect, interaction effects and quadratic effects of amounts of lipid, and surfactant/co-surfactant ratio on % transmittance, globule size, emulsification time, drug precipitation, and drug release were investigated. The optimized formulation consisting of 28.9% butyl lactate, 28.9% Capryol(®), 27.82% Solubilisant Gamma(®) 2429, and 14.18% Transcutol(®) possessing a globule size of 60 nm was mixed with Aerosil(®) 200. This gave uniform free flowing granules, which were characterized for surface and powder properties. The self-nanoemulsifying granules (SNEGs) filled into hard gelatin capsules showed two- and threefold increase in CZL released compared with conventional tablet and pure drug, respectively. The amount of drug permeated using non-everted sac technique from the SNEGs was twofold higher than that permeated from the tablet suspension. The shelf life was 526 days at 25°C. Our study illustrated that the developed SNEGs, with bioenhancing ingredients, held great potential as a superior alternative to traditional oral formulations of CZL.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 28 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 28 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 14%
Researcher 4 14%
Student > Master 3 11%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 4%
Student > Bachelor 1 4%
Other 3 11%
Unknown 12 43%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 6 21%
Chemistry 3 11%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 7%
Environmental Science 1 4%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 4%
Other 4 14%
Unknown 11 39%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 13 July 2015.
All research outputs
#19,942,887
of 25,371,288 outputs
Outputs from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#2,970
of 4,121 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#189,296
of 277,585 outputs
Outputs of similar age from International Journal of Nanomedicine
#102
of 125 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 25,371,288 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 18th percentile – i.e., 18% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,121 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.7. This one is in the 24th percentile – i.e., 24% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 277,585 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 26th percentile – i.e., 26% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 125 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 12th percentile – i.e., 12% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.