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Near-infrared photonic energy penetration: can infrared phototherapy effectively reach the human brain?

Overview of attention for article published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, August 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (97th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (97th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
10 news outlets
blogs
1 blog
twitter
14 X users
patent
6 patents
facebook
2 Facebook pages
googleplus
1 Google+ user
video
1 YouTube creator

Citations

dimensions_citation
298 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
378 Mendeley
Title
Near-infrared photonic energy penetration: can infrared phototherapy effectively reach the human brain?
Published in
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, August 2015
DOI 10.2147/ndt.s78182
Pubmed ID
Authors

Theodore A Henderson, Larry D Morries

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern effecting civilians and military personnel. Research has yielded a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI, but effective treatments have not been forthcoming. Near-infrared light (NIR) has shown promise in animal models of both TBI and stroke. Yet, it remains unclear if sufficient photonic energy can be delivered to the human brain to yield a beneficial effect. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of TBI and elaborates the physiological effects of NIR in the context of this pathophysiology. Pertinent aspects of the physical properties of NIR, particularly in regards to its interactions with tissue, provide the background for understanding this critical issue of light penetration through tissue. Our recent tissue studies demonstrate no penetration of low level NIR energy through 2 mm of skin or 3 cm of skull and brain. However, at 10-15 W, 0.45%-2.90% of 810 nm light penetrated 3 cm of tissue. A 15 W 810 nm device (continuous or non-pulsed) NIR delivered 2.9% of the surface power density. Pulsing at 10 Hz reduced the dose of light delivered to the surface by 50%, but 2.4% of the surface energy reached the depth of 3 cm. Approximately 1.22% of the energy of 980 nm light at 10-15 W penetrated to 3 cm. These data are reviewed in the context of the literature on low-power NIR penetration, wherein less than half of 1% of the surface energy could reach a depth of 1 cm. NIR in the power range of 10-15 W at 810 and 980 nm can provide fluence within the range shown to be biologically beneficial at 3 cm depth. A companion paper reviews the clinical data on the treatment of patients with chronic TBI in the context of the current literature.

X Demographics

X Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 14 X users who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.
Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 378 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Germany 1 <1%
Unknown 377 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 77 20%
Researcher 48 13%
Student > Master 35 9%
Student > Bachelor 33 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 28 7%
Other 55 15%
Unknown 102 27%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Engineering 60 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 39 10%
Chemistry 32 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 24 6%
Neuroscience 21 6%
Other 87 23%
Unknown 115 30%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 87. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 14 April 2024.
All research outputs
#498,764
of 25,712,965 outputs
Outputs from Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
#62
of 3,146 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#5,596
of 277,130 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
#2
of 91 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 25,712,965 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,146 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 10.5. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 277,130 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 91 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.